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Inside an Orange

The Orange Book, Tetra Pak 2004, p.7
Essentially, an orange is a ball of juice sacs protected by a waxy skin, the peel. The peel consists of a thin outer layer called the flavedo and a thicker, fibrous inner layer called the albedo.


Orange-coloured substances called carotenoids in the flavedo give the fruit its characteristic colour. Vesicles (a small sac or cavity) containing peel oil also present in the flavedo contribute to the fruit's fresh aroma. The white spongy albedo contains several substances which influence juice quality, often negatively, if they find their way into extracted juice. These substances include flavonoids, d-limonene, limonin and pectin.


The edible portion of the fruit is known as the endocarp. It consists of a central fibrous core, individual segments, segments walls and an outer membrane. The segments contain juice vesicles, or juice sacs, that are held together by a waxy substance. Seeds may also be present within the segments.


Apart from the juice itself, droplets of juice oil and lipid are also present in the juice vesicles. The juice contains sugars, acids, vitamins, minerals, pectins and coloured components along with many other components.


After juice is extracted, pieces of ruptured juice sacs and segment walls are recovered as pulp. When these particles are large, they are referred to as floating pulp because they rise to the surface of the juice. Very fine particles and suspended solids that gradually accumulate at the bottom of the juice are called sinking pulp.


Source: The Orange Book, Tetra Pak 2004, p.7